Kudos to you for actually giving it a go instead of going the easy route like everyone else. I’ll give a brief overview of each aspect:
Tire pressure: Doesn’t really do much. Higher pressure tires should get up to heat faster but on most tracks it makes no difference. Leave this section alone.
Gearing: Lower settings makes the ratio longer, gives more top speed. Increasing them makes the ratio shorter, gives more acceleration.
Camber: Affects cornering ability. You generally want more front camber than rear, and always negative.
Toe: Affects steering response. Negative makes it slower to change direction, positive makes it faster.
Caster: Multiplies the affects of camber and toe.
Anti-roll bars: Determines car stiffness when rotating through a corner. Stiffer will make the car understeer more and have more stability, softer will do the opposite.
Springs: Determines how the car shifts weight while cornering. These are the most complicated and it’s difficult to explain in a short sentence, but mess around with it to see how it affects your particular car.
Damping/Bump: Affects how fast the car will shift weight in a corner. Stiffer creates more oversteer, softer creates understeer.
Brake distribution: sends more braking power to the front or rear. Sending it to the rear creates oversteer while braking, to the front does the opposite.
Brake pressure: Essentially, changes the brake input from your trigger/pedal. Increasing it will cause the car to brake harder at lower input, softer does the opposite.
Differential: The most important thing. Affects how the car distributes power to the wheels when decelerating into a corner and accelerating out of it. Increasing acceleration will make the car oversteer more out of a corner, decreasing it makes it understeer more. Decreasing the deceleration will make the car oversteer more going into a corner, increasing it makes it understeer.
Mess around with each setting to see the effects yourself. Generally, drive the car stock first and see if it needs more oversteer or understeer, and then tune accordingly.